Since the conception of the profession at the beginning of the twentieth century, physical therapists have been using therapeutic exercises with considerable success. It has been proven to be vital in enhancing function, performance, and ability.
The aims of therapeutic workouts include:
- Mobility rehabilitation.
- Function and strength enhancement.
- Gait and balance improvement.
- Exercise prevention and promotion.
The purpose of therapeutic movements is to regain strength, control, function, stamina, or a combination. Expand the range of motion, relieve pain, enhance coordination and proprioception, and restore function, corrective movements are also used.
Definition of therapeutic exercise
The therapeutic workout may be described as a specific program of daily routine with particular goals. It refers to physical activity that is performed to treat chronic musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary or neurological disorders as part of a recovery regimen, distinct from exercise undertaken for general fitness maintenance, leisure, or social activity.
It may range from activities geared at a single body part or muscle group to general workouts designed to return a patient recovering from illness or surgery to a healthy physical condition.
Description of therapeutic physical training
There are four general types of therapeutics aerobics aimed at improving the strength of the elderly (resistance training), flexibility, endurance, and stability or balance.
Where possible, the practitioner or physical therapy should provide tasks preferred by the elderly, and those meant to achieve a particular result, such as a senior with arthritis who loves swimming, may be given this exertion therapy meant to enhance the range of movement performed in a swimming pool.
This exercise is often tailored to the senior’s personal health needs. The doctor should watch seniors with specific cardiac problems or blood pressure that declines during the workout time.
It may adjust few types of this activity for seniors; for example, while the person has trouble with weight lifting to improve body strength at the time of standing or walking, it can be done while seated.
Patients with osteoarthritis may choose three 10-minute workout sessions spaced out over the day to one 30-minute session; they will achieve health benefits as long as the shorter sessions add up to 30 minutes in a day.
Strength training is performed to build up muscle tissue; it usually consists of graduated workouts requiring resistance training.
This form of therapeutic activity is essential for the elderly because, when they age, most people lose between 20 and 40 percent of their muscle tissue. Strength training can be intense or moderate in difficulty. During the first year of practice, preparation will increase a senior’s power by 30 to 150 percent.
In terms of the strength or level of aerobic exercise required, flexibility training is usually low-intensity. However, many seniors appreciate flexible workouts because they confer a sense of general well-being.
Many flexibility workouts consist of stretches in which seniors slowly move their body to the desired position and hold it for 10 to 30 seconds. Should do flexibility workout after activities of strength or stamina as muscles have already warmed up.
Flexibility exercises include such activities as stretches of the hamstring, rotations of the hip and shoulder, the stretch of the calf and ankle, and upper arm stretches of the triceps muscle.
T’ai chi and yoga are also prescribed as a method of flexible exercise for seniors. Many people like these types of fitness because they can be performed with friends or as part of a lesson.
Endurance workouts have the most documented advantages of this exercise for the elderly. Walking is the most common type of elderly endurance exertion.
With around 50 percent of the elderly walking for exertion, and it is the most commonly prescribed by physicians. One research discovered that seniors who walk an average of at least 2 miles a day lower their chance of death by 50 percent.
Swimming, cycling, dancing, going up the stairs instead of using the lift, golf (walking), gardening or hard yard work, and low-impact aerobics are the other effective forms of endurance exercise. Jogging is not a suitable workout for the elderly if they are already used to it.
The doctors use a technology named the target heart rate to measure endurance workouts that will have the best health benefits for the elderly. The optimal heart rhythm for moderate-intensity endurance exercise is 60 to 79 percent of the maximum heart rate (measured in beats per minute).
The exercise stress test generally measures the maximum heart rate. But, it also can be calculated by subtracting the age of the elderly from 220. So, seniors who are 70 years old will have a maximum heart rate of 150, and their average heart rate will be about 90–120 beats per minute during moderate-intensity endurance workouts.
Stability or balance
Balance exercises are essential for both young and seniors as they reduce the risk of falls. Running heel to toe for short distances is one of the balancing activities that can be performed when taking a daily walk.
Another is to stand for a few seconds on one foot while standing in line or waiting for a bus and replace your feet every few seconds.
Reasons for doing therapeutic exertion
There are many purposes to do this kind of exercise. The goals are given below:
i) Lowering death, including for obese people and smokers. Different studies showed seniors who work out daily have 20 to 50% lower mortality rates than their sedentary counterparts.
ii) It enhances the general sense of well-being and social engagement opportunities.
iii) Improves sleep quality, which is essential because insomnia is a common issue for the elderly.
iv) Preserves muscle mass, bone density, and lung ability.
v) Creates a healthy state of energy and reduces the possibility of becoming obese. On aging knees, extra weight is challenging and raises heart failure and type 2 diabetes.
vi) Maintaining or enhancing joint stability and range of motion, which adds to the senior’s functional potential.
Vii) Blood pressure reduction.
viii) Reduces the probability of such psychological conditions as anxiety.
ix) It reduces the risk of falls and fall-related accidents, and so on.
Things that seniors should do/check before starting therapeutic activity
Before starting a regimen of therapeutic exertion, seniors should be tested for potential health conditions. In preparation for preparing a corrective fitness regimen, some physicians use a questionnaire called the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire or PAR-Q.
The PAR-Q has seven things that call for yes/no responses to questions such as chest pain, high blood pressure records, dizziness, and the like.
Before beginning a therapeutic physical training program, seniors should be tested with any of the following medical conditions:
i) Unbalanced angina (cause of chest pain is the low blood supply to the heart muscle)
ii) The irregular, uncontrolled rhythm of the heart.
iii) Via cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle; maybe genetic or caused by inflammation of the strength of the heart)
iv) Familiar or suspected dissecting aneurysm (abnormal blood-filled bulge in the wall of a weakened artery that is expanding along the portion of the artery)
v) Current systemic or pulmonary embolus (air bubble or other unusual particle circulating in the blood)
vi) Blood pressure recovers over 200 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure resting around 110 mm Hg.
vii) Severe hypertension of the lung (high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery).
viii) Pulmonary thrombosis (inflammation of the veins caused by blood clot formation).
“Physical idleness is the second leading cause (after tobacco use) of early death” in the United States.
After an accident or diagnosis of a chronic illness or condition, corrective therapy is recommended since many older people do not do enough physical activity.
Only 20 to 25 percent of the seniors work out for more than 30 minutes 5 times or more in a week. Women usually exercise less than men, but in the absence of workouts, low income and low level of education are more influential factors than gender or advancing age.
References of exercise therapy
Books about therapeutic exercise:
Beers, Mark H., Thomas V. Jones. Merck Geriatrics Textbook, 3rd edition, Chapter 31, “Exercise.” Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck, 2005.
Hall, Carrie M., Lori Thein Brody. Therapeutic exercise: moving towards function, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
Kisner, Carolyn, and Lynn Allen Colby. Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques, 5th edition. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2007;
How does it work?
Therapeutic physical training offers a wide range of physical activities focused on strength, stamina, flexibility, stability, and balance rehabilitation and maintenance. Rehabilitation activities aim to restore a fully functional, pain-free state to an injured patient.
What is the difference between physical activity and exercise?
Physical activity refers to skeletal muscle contraction that promotes body movement and requires power. Workout is a physical activity that is scheduled and undertaken to achieve or sustain physical fitness. Physical fitness is a collection of characteristics that encourages a person to perform physical exercise.
Who it’s for?
Therapeutic physical training for everyone. But, it’s especially prescribed for seniors and injured persons.
This exercise most quickly includes action administered to remedy disabilities, improve muscle and structural function, and sustain a more well state. Scientific research proving the positive results of workouts is undeniable, and in most adults, the advantages of exertion greatly exceed the dangers.
To promote and preserve strength training and nutrition, an exercise regimen involving aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and neuromuscular exercise instruction is necessary for most adults. Several of the best skills on which the physiotherapy practice is focused is this exertion.
It is shown that, when analyzing the concepts of therapeutic activity, physical activity, and exercise, while therapeutic exercise requires the elements of both physical exercises. Also, it requires a structured regimen of exercise to remedy dysfunction and increase functioning.